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Thymosin Alpha 1 Benefits: A Comprehensive Analysis

Thymosin alpha 1 is a remarkable peptide in biochemistry that holds the key to numerous health benefits.

Among those, the most important is reducing the Mortality of Severe Coronavirus Disease. Also, it helps in the treatment of immunocompromised states and malignancies.

This article will discuss the biochemistry, extraction, analysis, benefits, applications, side effects, and the Thymosin Alpha 1 price.

So Let’s begin with the biochemistry of this useful peptide.

Part 1. Biochemistry of Thymosin Alpha 1 Peptide

Thymosin alpha 1 is a naturally occurring peptide in the thymus. It is recognized for modifying, enhancing, and restoring immune function.

Structure of Thymosin Alpha 1

Thymosin proteins are short, positively charged, unregulated peptides. Thymosin Alpha 1’s structure was determined in a 40% trifluoroethanol/60% water solvent. This reveals a distorted helical configuration with stable regions (Alpha-helix site: 14-26 residues, two double turns in β region in the N-terminal site: 12 residues).

Synthetic Analog: Thymalfasin

Thymalfasin is a synthetic thymosin alpha 1 analog. It has many useful properties, including the following.

  • It induces IL-2 production, lymphocyte differentiation, B cell growth factors, and improved macrophage antigen presentation.
  • It enhances vaccine efficacy in immunocompromised patients and modulates T-lymphocyte numbers/function.
  • Thymalfasin may benefit T cell lymphopenia, immunosuppression, and immune dysregulation in COVID-19. (Dominari et al. 2020)

Now, let’s delve into the various extraction and analysis methods of Thymosin Alpha 1.

Part 2.Extraction and Analysis of Thymosin Alpha 1

Various methods have been explored for its production and purification. It includes extraction from calf thymuses, thymosin fraction 5 isolation, and solid-phase synthesis. It also shows genetic engineering expression using prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms.

Extraction of Thymosin Alpha 1

Three methods of obtaining bioactive thymosin alpha 1 are:

  • Isolation from calf thymuses.
  • Extraction from thymosin fraction 5 from calf thymuses.
  • Genetic engineering expression using prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms.

E.coli expression using the BL21/pET-28a system yielded the most promising results (70% of total bacterial protein production).

Analysis Methods of Thymosin Alpha 1 Peptide

Methods for the analysis of Thymosin Alpha 1 are as mentioned:

  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
  • Ultraviolet light absorbance at 215 nm
  • Nickel affinity chromatography
  • Thermal denaturation
  • High-performance liquid chromatography

Yeast-based expression system effectively produced thymosin alpha 1, increasing CD8+ counts in mice.

Due to extraction and purification challenges, genetic engineering methods are yet to be introduced clinically. (Dominari et al. 2020)

Now, let’s focus on the biological activities and health benefits of Thymosin Alpha 1.

Part 3. Biological Activities and Health Benefits

Thymosin alpha 1 benefits have effectively been used in Covid patients with biological activities ranging from anti-tumor to immune-modulating properties. It plays a fundamental role in the control of inflammation and immunity. Also, it shows positive anti-tumor effects.

Reduces the Mortality of Severe Coronavirus Disease

To fight against virus infection, boosting T-cell numbers and their antiviral functions in COVID-19 patients is necessary. Tα1 is a polypeptide hormone regulating T-cell production, differentiation, and activity.

  • Tα1 was administered to 76 severe or critical COVID-19 patients. Among them, 36 received Tα1 treatment, and 40 did not.
  • Both groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics.
  • Tα1-treated patients had slightly higher IL-6 levels but better oxygen levels on admission and discharge.
  • No side effects were observed in the Tα1 group.
  • Mortality was lower in the Tα1 group (11.11%) compared to the non-treated group (30%).
  • Tα1 treatment shows promise in reducing mortality in severe COVID-19 patients.

(Liu et al. 2020)

Immune-Modulating Properties

Thymosin alpha 1 is a toll-like receptor agonist in myeloid and dendritic cells. The following mentioned fall under the immune-modulating properties.

  • It stimulates the adaptive immune response against infections and cancers
  • Increases cytokine levels, including IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-α, and IFN-γ.
  • It enhances T-cell-dependent antibody production, making it a potential vaccine adjuvant.
  • Thymosin alpha 1 activates natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells, leading to viral-infected cell death.
  • It also reduces inflammatory responses and viral replication.

Anti-tumor effects

  • From Thymosin alpha 1 benefits, anti-tumor effects are of special importance.
  • It restrains tumor growth, especially in smaller tumors.
  • FDA-approved thymalfasin (Zadaxin) treats melanoma, hepatitis B/C, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (Dominari et al. 2020)

Tα1 Biological Uses

Part 4. Clinical and Commercial Applications

Thymosin alpha 1 synthetic form, thymalfasin, is widely used in the clinical field. Some of its applications are as follows.

Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B

  • Tα-1 is an immunomodulatory agent with beneficial effects in chronic viral hepatitis.
  • In CHB, Tα-1 monotherapy effectively suppresses viral replication.
  • Combination therapy of Tα-1 with lamivudine or IFN-α shows better HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion.
  • Ongoing clinical studies are exploring Tα-1 combined with entecavir for treating HBV cirrhosis.

(Wu et al. 2015)

Applications in Oncological Patients

  • Thymosin alpha 1 benefits in treating metastatic melanoma, head and neck carcinoma, and lung cancer.
  • It also boosts the immune system in patients undergoing chemotherapy-induced immune depression or insufficiency.
  • Combining thymosin alpha 1 with chemotherapy improves survival rates in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Clinical applications of Tα1

As we’ve seen Thymosin alpha 1 benefits, it’s essential to be aware of its potential side effects.

Part 5. Side Effects of Thymosin Alpha 1

Thymalfasin (synthetic thymosin alpha 1) is generally well tolerated, with common side effects.

  • It causes local irritation at the injection site.
  • Combining it with interferon 2b in clinical trials causes severe effects such as fever, muscle aches, vomiting, and neutropenia.
  • It should not be used in patients with hypersensitivity to thymosin alpha 1 or its components.
  • It is also contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients, like organ transplant recipients.

(Dominari et al. 2020)

Now let’s move on to the last part. Here, we will explore its pricing and the exceptional value NuScience Peptides offers.

Part 6. What is Thymosin Alpha 1 Price

Discover the Thymosin Alpha 1 benefits for research at NuScience Peptides. Our top-quality product is specially made for scientists and researchers studying immune modulation and antiviral properties. Order now and unlock its potential for your experiments!

NuScience Peptide sells at a discounted price of  only $49.99

Why Buy from NuScience Peptides?

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Enjoy free shipping for orders over $125 to make your shopping hassle-free.

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Rest assured of the highest purity as our products undergo rigorous lab testing for unmatched quality. Shop with confidence!

Choose NuScience Peptides for a reliable and hassle-free experience when buying online for research purposes.

Thymosin Alpha 1 from NuScience Peptide


Thymosin Alpha 1 is a powerful peptide with remarkable health benefits and vast potential.

It shows great promise in treating various conditions, including severe Coronavirus Disease. Also, it has shown benefits in boosting the immune system and improving vaccine responses. Discover the potential of  your research with top-quality peptides from NuScience Peptides. We provide same-day shipping and dedicated customer service.


Dominari, A., Hathaway Iii, D., Pandav, K., Matos, W., Biswas, S., Reddy, G., Thevuthasan, S., Khan, M. A., Mathew, A., Makkar, S. S., Zaidi, M., Fahem, M. M. M., Beas, R., Castaneda, V., Paul, T., Halpern, J., & Baralt, D. (2020). Thymosin alpha 1: A comprehensive review of the literature. World Journal of Virology, 9(5), 67–78.

Liu, Pan, Hu, Wu, Wang, Feng, Mao, Tan, Liu, Chen, Li, Wang, Yuan, Diao, Wu, & Chen. (2020). Thymosin alpha 1 reduces the mortality of severe coronavirus disease 2019 by restoration of lymphocytopenia and reversion of exhausted T cells. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(16), 2150–2157.

Wu, X., Jia, J., & You, H. (2015). Thymosin alpha-1 treatment in chronic hepatitis B. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 15(sup1), 129–132.